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Usage of anti-NPM1 antibodies for diagnostics and research of acute myeloid leukemia: a systematic review
Author: Maximilian Zuleeg1,2,3 ([email protected])
Section 2 - Basic and Translational Sciences
Editor: Jonathan Speh ([email protected])
Nucleophosmin (NPM1) is essential for the maintenance of a healthy cellular state. If mutated, it is one of the most common molecular causes for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This review systematically analyzes the current usage and potentials of anti-NPM1 antibodies in diagnostics and research around AML. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to an initial pool of 142 papers, which produced a total of 5 studies that were examined in detail. Anti-NPM1 antibodies have only successfully been used for diagnostic purposes within studies backed by standard means of detection, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The findings across the studies either directly stated or suggested, that the anti-NPM1 antibodies are to some extent unspecific and cross-reaction takes place, especially between the NPM1 mutant and NPM1 wildtype protein. With further validation and an increased specificity however anti-NPM1 antibodies have the potential to be an option for diagnostics and research. Anti-NPM1 antibodies may be used for rapid diagnostics at first diagnosis by integration into already existing immunophenotyping processes. Additionally, especially monoclonal antibodies with a high sensitivity, may be used for the diagnosis of minimal residual disease (MRD). In research anti-NPM1 antibodies could be used as part of single-cell approaches to unveil the leukemic lineage and identify the cells of origin (leukemic stem cells) of AML. Studies such as that will be essential to the development of more personalized medicines against AML.
Affiliations of the author:
1 Department for Hematology, Oncology and Tumorimmunology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
2 Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
3 Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association, Berlin Institute for Medical Systems Biology, Berlin, Germany